[KINDLE] ❄ Sygdommen til Døden ❦ Søren Kierkegaard – Horse-zine.co.uk

Sygdommen til Døden explained Sygdommen til Døden, review Sygdommen til Døden, trailer Sygdommen til Døden, box office Sygdommen til Døden, analysis Sygdommen til Døden, Sygdommen til Døden db62 One Of The Most Remarkable Philosophical Works Of The Nineteenth Century, Famed For The Depth And Acuity Of Its Modern Psychological InsightsWriting Under The Pseudonym Anti Climacus, Kierkegaard Explores The Concept Of Despair, Alerting Readers To The Diversity Of Ways In Which They May Be Described As Living In This State Of Bleak Abandonment Including Some That May Seem Just The Opposite And Offering A Much Discussed Formula For The Eradication Of Despair With Its Penetrating Account Of The Self, This Late Work By Kierkegaard Was Hugely Influential Upon Twentieth Century Philosophers Including Karl Jaspers, Jean Paul Sartre And Albert Camus The Sickness Unto Death Can Be Regarded As One Of The Key Works Of Theistic Existentialist Thought A Brilliant And Revelatory Answer To One Man S Struggle To Fill The Spiritual VoidFor Than Seventy Years, Penguin Has Been The Leading Publisher Of Classic Literature In The English Speaking World With Than , Titles, Penguin Classics Represents A Global Bookshelf Of The Best Works Throughout History And Across Genres And Disciplines Readers Trust The Series To Provide Authoritative Texts Enhanced By Introductions And Notes By Distinguished Scholars And Contemporary Authors, As Well As Up To Date Translations By Award Winning Translators

  • Paperback
  • 201 pages
  • Sygdommen til Døden
  • Søren Kierkegaard
  • English
  • 11 March 2019
  • 9780691020280

About the Author: Søren Kierkegaard

S ren Aabye Kierkegaard was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian Kierkegaard strongly criticised both the Hegelianism of his time and what he saw as the empty formalities of the Church of Denmark Much of his work deals with religious themes such as faith in God, the institution of the Christian Church, Christian ethics and theology, and the emotions and feelings of individua

10 thoughts on “Sygdommen til Døden

  1. says:

    Kierkegaard is a strange philosopher to discuss His writing is incredibly dense in ideology while poetically preserving the aesthetic I bought this book than two years ago, along with Fear and Trembling yet they have never left my bedside table One can read this book a dozen times and still find new landscapes in his ideology It was about time to revisit this book once again.It might sound ridiculous, but I find this book to be the greatest self help book ever written Its important to recognize Despair as a part of the self its important to recognize Despair as the right path to actualization or in Kierkegaard s vocabulary Faith Its normal for us to rebel against our existence and defy any eternal consolation for the sake of individuality because what are we but self conscious errors who have risen up against the tyranny of their creator One of the most eye opening works of philosophy I have ever read.

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    For Kierkegaard, the self is not the relation which relates to itself but the relation s relating to itself From the start, he shifts from a Cartesian or essentialist view of the self to an existentialist one Whereas for Descartes self is a common noun, for Kierkegaard, it is a gerund And the embedded verb, to relate, points to the dynamics of the self In this case, relating to itself.The first despair is that which is ignorant of being in despair, or the despairing ignorance of having a self and an eternal self Similar to the unexamined life of Socrates, this is the unexamined self And for Kierkegaard, this is the most common despair, though the individuals involved aren t aware of it In the Christian worldview, a human being is a synthesis of the infinite and finite, and therefore the tension between these poles becomes the source of next two types of despair wanting in despair to be oneself and not wanting in despair to be oneself For Kierkegaard, despair is the sickness unto death, one different from an ordinary sickness that leads to physical death Within the Christian framework, physical death may be a path toward eternal life and a dying person may hope for the life after But despair, as the sickness unto death, is when one hopes for death as a resolution, but the person cannot die Hence, the despair Such despair presupposes life after death For the atheistic existentialist, such as Sartre or Camus, death is the ultimate end and creates the despair by nullifying hope and achievement and life Faith, the interacting with the power which established it, is for Kierkegaard the only way the self can overcome despair.Kierkegaard contributes to Christianity by reformulating faith as the dynamics between the believer and the power that established it, in overcoming the ignorance of a self, and in reintegrating the self with this power so as to resolve the tension between the two Not longer is faith accepting a set of doctrines and carrying out the rites and rituals of the Church.And he contributes to our understanding of human beings by modeling the self as the relating to itself and others, rather than as static stuffs bodies, minds, souls and spirits, etc So the focus shifts from being to becoming.

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    What our age needs is education And so this is what happened God chose a man who also needed to be educated, and educated him privatissime, so that he might be able to teach others from his own experience. From Kierkegaard s personal Journals 2013 is the bicentennial of Kierkegaard s birth He probably would have not wanted you to know that, but he has plenty things to let you know.They call him the Father of Existentialism You know you re asking for trouble when trying to write about a man who holds that distinction, but I must make an effort, once again, to try in vain to talk about one of my heroes period Philosopher, theologian, man in love, man in despair, man in angst, man in thought, man in anxiety, the man who launched the great Attack on Christendom in order to save ChristianityI can obviously go on but he is almost beyond description in a way though I have just described him at considerable length To get to the book itself, it is a relatively short read in comparison to most of his work and is an implicit response to his earlier masterpiece Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments written under the pseudonym Johannes Climacus while this book is written under the name Anti Climacus I have read excerpts of Postscripts but not the whole work in its entirety it is long , but a lot of the main points are brought up and somewhat expounded on from a different angle here The title of this book is actually 2 3 of the main topic of the book which is that the sickness unto death is despair that is THE word of this book and main idea In two parts, he is going to talk about the kinds of despair and than what despair actually is Throughout that time we will get the standard anti Hegelianism, mixed with the very in depth psychological, existential obviously, he even uses the word , and theological insight that has made his work as new today as it was 50, 100, and 164 years ago I am constantly amazed at how at his best, he could tell you anything and make it sound ultra enlightening even if you feel you have heard it before For such a small book I felt overwhelmed in a good way at all the information that I was getting in such little space The only other book that really did that to me is Notes from Underground, another existential classic This book also recalled Fear and Trembling to my mind But where that book gives the existential definition of faith the teleological suspension of the ethical , this book gives the existential definition of sin One common complaint about this book is about some of the lag in part one which infuriated me when part two came around and he easily explains all the tortured points he was making in a page and a half The good news is that he makes up for it big time in part two when he gets into the topic Despair is Sin , from there he s on a rampage of everything you ever thought about sin and Christian faithOne is amazed at how well executed his criticism of institutional Christianity which he calls Christendom is without seeming in the least apostateical yet he pulls no punches, whether you re pious or a pagan he is going after you and trying his best to make you question what you thought you knew But it has to be said, and as bluntly as possible, that so called Christendom in which all, in their millions, are Christians as a matter of course, so that there are as many, yes, just as many Christians as there are people is not only a miserable edition of Christianity, full of misprints that distort the meaning and of thoughtless omissions and emendations, but an abuse of it in having taken Christianity s name in vain Alas the fate of this word in Christendom is like an epigram on all that is Christian The misfortune is not that no one speaks up for Christianity nor, therefore, that there is not enough priests but they speak up for for it in such a way that the majority of people end up attaching no meaning to itThus the highest and holiest leave no impression at all, but sound like something that has now God knows why become a matter of form and habits indefensible they find it requisite to defend Christianity Oh and his feelings toward apologetics One can see nowhow extraordinarily stupid it is to defend Christianity, how little knowledge of humanity it betrays, how it makes Christianity out to be some miserable object that in the end must be rescued by a defence sic It is therefore certain and true that the person who first thought of defending Christianity in Christendom is de facto a Judas No 2 he too betrays with a kiss, except his treason is that of stupidity To defend something is always to discredit it Let a man have a warehouse full of gold, let him be willing to give away a ducat to every one of the poor but let him also be stupid enough to begin this charitable undertaking of his with a defence in which he offers three good reasons in justification and it will almost come to the point of people finding it doubtful whether indeed he is doing something good But now for Christianity Yes, the person who defends that has never believed in it If he does believe, then the enthusiasm of faith is not a defence, no, it is the assault and the victory a believer is a victor. One has to have read or be familiar with Concluding Unscientific Postscripts to understand why he is so against Christian apologetics In that work he comments on the absurdity of the idea that the eternal should come into time and die while taking on the form as the least and lowest of men He argues here and there that the idea is from an intellectual bases absurd to all hell and back, thus making it indefensible but at the same time making it the supreme act of love and morality and is, at least for him, the solution to despair but of course I m simplifying this so my small mind can understand This is just a taste of the ideas going through this book and I would advise you to read it and experience it for yourself One person who deserves some credit in this book is obvious to those who knows the life of Kierkegaard was the only love he ever had, his fianc e Regine Olsen This book, like many of S.K s work, is autobiographical to an extent and his relationship to Olsen manages to show up in quite a bit of his works in one form or another They were not Dante and Beatrice but she had a devastatingly profound effect on him and she could be called, in a way, the mother of existentialism This really impresses me and makes me feel that Kierkegaard was probably one of the best psychologist of his own mind outside of Jung Let us speak of this in purely human terms Oh how pitiable a person who has never felt the loving urge to sacrifice everything for love, who has therefore been unable to do so

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    Identity in an industrialised world14 October 2013 This book seems to simply ramble on with only a vague structure to it The reason I say a vague structure is because the first part deals with despair and the second part deals with the nature of sin However within both parts Kierkegaard doesn t seem to actually be moving in any specific direction, nor does he seem to come to any particular conclusion if I were marking this as an essay, I would probably give it good marks in relation to content which I why I gave it such a high rating, because in amongst all of the ramblings, he makes some very insightful statements but give it an very low mark in regards to structure However, as I have mentioned, I am interested in the content than in the structure Kierkegaard which, by the way, means graveyard in Danish is considered to be the father of existentialism It wasn t that one day he decided to sit down an write a new philosophy, but rather he was writing in response to the changes that he was seeing going on around him and building upon the philosophies of those that came before him Kierkegaard was also a Christian, and had studied for the priesthood, however we wasn t connected with any specific church This is not surprising because at the time Denmark had a state church, and with all state churches, if one does not tow the line, one does not get to speak The situation that Kierkegaard is writing about is the destruction of the self that was coming about with modernisation As people began to move from the country to the cities, people s individuality, and identity, were beginning to disappear This was also happening within industrialisation, as the skilled person was being replaced with a multitude of unskilled workers Where previously a nail would be individually made by a blacksmith who was skilled in making all sorts of items, nails were now made by a team who were required to work on only one part of the nail As such, the identity of the skilled blacksmith was being replaced by the workers, who in effect had no identity at all This, as Kierkegaard suggests, is the progenitor of despair Further, this loss of identity also created a loss of purpose, and when one s purpose is removed, it goes on to add to the despair Maybe this is why depression is so common in the developed world today because we have effectively lost our identity, and simply find ourselves as being one of the crowd For instance, as in my case, I like to review and comment on books, but so do hundreds of other people, and as such I find myself competing with hundreds or even thousands of other people for readership of my commentaries, and if twenty of them have picked up a large following then I feel, in the end, that I have been left behind, and as such all of my work means nothing I have lost my purpose, and in the end there is nothing left but despair So the question that arises is what is existentialism It is the idea that we define who we are rather than letting other people define ourselves This is the essence of despair because if I base my ability to write a commentary by the number of likes that I get then I find that I am letting others define who I am Instead, if I let define myself as someone who likes to read, and then write about what I have read, and the thoughts and ideas that I have while I have been reading, then it does not matter what other people think, because I have given myself my own definition It is also the case outside of this particular sphere because if you let people define who you are David, I can see that you are this type of person then we open ourselves up to despair because we give our identity to others to enchain us with their opinion How would one respond to that Me, I simply ignore that person, and go and find somebody else to spend time with, somebody who is not going to attempt to define me, but allow me to define myself I guess that is what Kierkegaard is trying to do and I don t really think he does it well in my opinion, because this book is very dense, and also hard to follow his argument and that is to empower us to escape from the cycle of despair and to make us realise that in God s eyes we are actually somebody, and while we may have a meaningless, dead end job, we can escape that by giving ourselves our own identity and our own definition Another example from my own life is that in my previous role I let it define me, and because I let it define me, it depressed me This time I just acknowledge that I do work, and I work for an insurance company, but then try to move away from that to talk about other things so that my job does not define me, but rather I define myself Look, it isn t easy, and people really don t like it when you empower yourself like that, but as Nietzsche said, that which doesn t kill you, only makes you stronger and he was also an existentialist philosopher.

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    In which I am again reminded of a friend s experience with a professor in a class on Kierkegaard the students spent the first five weeks trying to convince the professor that you can probably only understand a quarter of Kierkegaard unless you read him in the context of Hegel the professor rejects this and stresses instead Kierkegaard s Socraticism at the end of the fifth week i.e., less than halfway through the course the professor admits defeat If that doesn t sound remarkable, you haven t taken many courses with philosophy professors, whom you cannot convince of anything unless they already secretly believe it The moral of the story is most of Kierkegaard s writing is incomprehensible unless you ve read Hegel That doesn t mean, as the cliche has it, that he s writing against Hegel This book is a kind of depressing mini phenomenology of spirit, in which, instead of ascending towards absolute knowledge, human kind simultaneously ascends towards what Kierkegaard takes to be absolute knowledge i.e., God , and descends further into despair for any number of reasons and in any number of ways For Hegel, there s always one destination you might stop on the way to the truth, but your journey is always in that direction For Kierkegaard, as for Marx, there are two destinations the good God communism and the horrific despair barbarism which are both in the same direction For Marx, science in the Hegelian sense will get you to communism, while ideology capitalism etc will get you to barbarism For Kierkegaard, science will lead you closer to God, by deepening your despair, but it won t get you to the good Kierkegaard has very good criticisms to make of Hegel, but not the way that, say, Russell has criticisms of him Kierkegaard, like Marx, remains on Hegel s side of the fence Anyway, SuD is a critique of the various idiocies human kind will perform in order to stay in despair Unlike 20th century existentialists, to whom he s often compared, Kierkegaard insists that the way we are both eternal and mortal does not, in itself, lead to despair despair is the result of an imbalance in ourselves, a stressing of one or the other of these elements at the expense of the other The human condition is not intrinsically one of despair despair is something we do to ourselves SuD goes through the many different ways in which we can be unbalanced pretending we re other than we are, despairing of the way we are, and so on The cure is to recognize and live with our synthesis, not wish to be entirely eternal a fantasy nor believe ourselves to be entirely mortal which, as a kind of determinism, cuts us off from the possibilities of human existence The quasi Hegelian portraits of various people in despair still read like a rogue s gallery of contemporary intellectuals Have hope in the possibility of help, especially on the strength of the absurd, that for God everything is possible No, that he will not And ask help of any other No, that for all the world he will not do if it came to that, he would rather be himself with all the torments of hell than ask for help 102 Here are your militant atheists, scientific determinists , literary existentialists, and solipsistic nihilists of all stripes, wallowing in self satisfaction, he prefers to rage against everything and be the one whom the whole world, all existence, has wronged, the one for whom it is especially important to ensure that he has his agony on hand, so that no one will take it from him for then he would not be able to convince others and himself that he is right 103 The second part, on despair as sin, is a much easier read, and not quite as interesting, although it does include the wonderful thought that a self is what it has as its standard of measurement, 147 Kierkegaard s attack on Christendom comes up here, and is as right as ever, but you d have to be pretty convinced of the perfection of institutional Christianity to find it all that affecting, and I, dear reader, am not In short, there s a great lesson in here for 21st century types who like to harp on about humanity s existential loneliness and how evolution means we re destined to rape and pillage because there s no meaning any if you think only a God can give us meaning, then leap into faith, or come to the somewhat easier realization that actually, we can give ourselves meaning It s childish to think otherwise I ve always found it odd that so many people who, quite rightly, hold firm to empiricism, take so seriously the idea of determinism a reasonable assumption for experimental science, but not therefore a fact despite the absence of evidence for it Granted, there can be no evidence for it despite those idiotic experiments in which people s brains decide something before the people do But determinism and God have that in common That won t change anyone s mind on God or determinism, of course, because, as Kierkegaard puts it in a different context, the despairer thinks that he himself is this evidence 105.

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    The Sickness unto Death, like all of Kierkegaard s works, is as relevant today as it was when it was first published in 1849 In fact, it may very well be even relevant as the downward spiral of Christendom has continued in the century and a half since the death of Kierkegaard In this work, Kierkegaard identifies the illness of man, the sickness unto death, as the state of despair and offers the bitter but effective medicine of the truth of the Christian faith.Despair, says Kierkegaard, is the state in which the vast majority of men live Despair is to desire to establish oneself as an unique individual through one s own efforts and, equally, it is the obverse to attempt to the best of one s abilities to blend in and subsume oneself within the mass of one s society.The only means by which despair can be overcome is to realize oneself in the presence of God It is only through seeing oneself as God sees one and conforming oneself to God s desires for one that a person becomes, in the fullest sense of the word, a self What Kierkegaard offers here is, really, a brief but intensive summary of the Gospel In addition to the perennial applicability of Kierkegaard s insights on the nature of despair, faith, and selfhood, his comments on the state of the Christian Church are insightful indictments which every Christian should read I recommend this book for anyone who is interested in the most important question a person can ask how then should we live Ezekiel 33 10.

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    The Sickness unto Death is an insightful taxonomy of human self deception, and a fascinating polemic supporting a Christianity of individuals, rather than groups Its two parts, The Sickness unto Death is Despair and Despair is Sin, reflect its dual psychological and theological significance.It is, first, a precursor of modern psychoanalysis, exploring the idea of despair as a lack of self understanding and self acceptance Anticipating Freud s unconscious mind, Kierkegaard claims that virtually everyone is always in despair, whether they know it or not Not being conscious of being in despair, is itself a form of despair The physician knows that just as there can be merely imagined illness, so too is there merely imagined health Much of the book consists of a general overview of the many different forms despair can take, from the despairing ignorance of having a self and an eternal self to the demonic wanting in despair to be oneself defiance Although, as one of Kierkegaard s algebraic i.e., philosophically schematic rather than literary works, Sickness spends little time developing these forms of despair, fleshed out examples an be found in his other works, such as Either Or The short allegories Kierkegaard does use to illustrate his ideas, however, are consistently clear and illuminating For example As a father disinherits a son, the self will not acknowledge itself after it has been so weak Despairingly it is unable to forget that weakness somehow it hates itself, it will not humble itself in faith under its weakness in order to win itself back No, in despair it will not, as it were, hear a word about itself, will have nothing to do with itself As doubtless often with the father who disinherited the son the external fact only helped a little it did not rid him of the son, least of all in his thoughts As so often it helps little when the lover curses the despised that is, loved one, but almost intricates him the , so it is for the despairing self with itself Second, and to Kierkegaard s purpose, Sickness is an unorthodoxly orthodox classic of Christian theology A must read for anyone interested in the concept of sin, Sickness disavows the notion that sin is simply unethical behavior no, for Kierkegaard the opposite of sin is not virtue but faith Sin for Kierkegaard is before God, or with the conception of God, in despair not wanting to be oneself, or wanting in despair to be oneself Sin is a heightened form of despair in which God judges each one of us Using this notion, Kierkegaard attacks established Christendom for being complacent and confident, due to its strength in numbers, of its sinlessness Christianity says to each individual Thou shalt believe Not one word there is nothing to add Now I have spoken , says God in heaven, we shall talk it over again in eternity In the meantime you can do what you want, but judgement is at hand A judgement Indeed, we men have learned, by experience, that when there is a mutiny on a ship or in an army, then the guilty are so numerous that the punishment has to be dropped and when it is the public, the highly esteemed and cultivated public, or the people, then there is not only no crime, but according to the newspaper, which is as dependable as the Gospels and the Revelation, it is God s will Why is this so The reason is that the concept judgement corresponds to the individual judgment cannot be passed en masse people can be killed en masse, sprayed en masse, flattered en masse, in short can be treated in many ways just like cattle, but to judge people like cattle is not possible, for one cannot pass judgement on cattle However many are judged, if there is to be any seriousness or truth in the judgement, then judgement is passed on each individual If only there are enough of us in this, then there is no wrong in it before this wisdom all people have to this day bowed down kings, emperors, and excellencies So, God is damned well going to learn to bow down too It is simply a matter of there being many of us, a decent number, who stick together if we do that we are made safe against the judgement of eternity They are indeed safe, if it is only in eternity that they are to become individuals But they were, and are, constantly individuals before God Thus, Kierkegaard s aim is to awaken the reader as spirit i.e., as an individual self before God, not to defend Christianity s doctrines On the contrary, Kierkegaard s strongest words are directed against apologetics how extraordinarily stupid it is to defend Christianity, how little knowledge of humanity it betrays, how it connives if only unconsciously with offence by making Christianity out to be some miserable object that in the end must be rescued by a defence Yes, the person who defends that has never believed in it If he does believe, then the enthusiasm of faith is not a defence, no, it is the assault and the victory a believer is a victor To fully understand why Kierkegaard considers Christianity fundamentally and necessarily irrational, to the point of causing offence, it will be helpful to read his other works, such as Fear and Trembling or Concluding Unscientific Postscript, where faith is defined as an objective uncertainty held fast in the most passionate inwardness And nothing, for Kierkegaard, could be less certainly true than Christianity s paradoxes, like the idea that there is an infinite difference in kind between God and man, yet the two share a kinship To try and water down Christianity s offensive aspects, to make faith easier to just blindly slip into, is to destroy faith by removing the necessity for the individual to passionately CHOOSE, for himself, his own life path, his own self.Although this is one of Kierkegaard s difficult works, once the basic project is grasped it is quite readable, and is straightforward than The Concept of Anxiety, a psychological work which explores very similar ideas to Sickness The first paragraph with its The self is a relation which relates to itself, or that in the relation which is its relating to itself, etc., etc is famously dense and opaque, but is not representative of the rest of the text, which becomes and clear and accessible as it delves deeper into the obscurity of sin and despair The Sickness unto Death is an invaluable resource for those interested in existential psychology or religious philosophy However, it is perhaps not the best place to begin if you haven t read other Kierkegaard works Fear and Trembling is an easier starting point For both texts, I recommend the Hannay translation, rather than the Hong one.

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